The management of an organization plays a very important role in its success. The management is responsible for managing the resources of the business, including the human resource and other resources to ensure that the company’s objectives are met. The management has to come up with a series of activities and targets that must be met to maximize the profitability of the business.
These include several operative functions such as purchasing, finance, and marketing, and more importantly, separate managers must be assigned for handling different heads. Different experts have talked about the function of the management process in different ways, but there are some important functions that must be separated and headlined.
These remain similar in all organizations.
The first of the four basic functions of management is planning. During the planning stage, the managers are responsible for setting the organizational goals and making sure that a plan of action exists to achieve these targets. During this phase, management is responsible for making important decisions that eventually sets the direction of the company.
Managers usually have to sit down and brainstorm different ideas and solutions before they select the best plan of action. During the planning stage, managers also sit down with the staff to conduct an in-depth analysis into the workings of the organization and to determine the maximum potential of each team.
They take into account the mission and the vision of the company and then look at the resources available for achieving the objective set by the board. During the planning stage, managers carefully look at the external and the internal factors that affect the company, such as the overall economic growth, its competitors, and of course, the expectation of customers.
Approaches to Planning
Most companies take different approaches to planning. Managers usually start by creating a realistic timeline for the achievement of the goals and then determine the budgets available for those targets. There are several approaches used, such as the following:
Strategic planning: this type of planning usually takes place at the top level of management. The managers are responsible for creating the goals that define the path for the entire business. During this stage, the managers analyze the strengths and the weaknesses of the business, and they create a plan that best fits with the workings of the organization. As you can expect, the time frame for this type of planning is considerably longer.
Tactical planning: the goals set at the strategic stage are further divided into smaller ones. In a tactical plan, the goals are usually set for a year or less. They must be carried out by the middle management and they are aimed at specific departments, such as finance, marketing, personnel, or production.
Operational planning: finally, there’s operational planning. In this kind of planning, the steps taken at the tactical planning stage are used to achieve the goals and strategic objectives of the organization. A time frame is created for putting the plan into action and then operational managers are assigned to check on their progress.
The next function of management is organization. Organization simply means to redistribute the resources available to the company and to find the right personnel to delegate tasks to. This is designed to bring more efficiency into the business and to ensure that the goals set in the planning stage are achieved by the organization.
During this stage, the managers will have to work closely with the different departments, particularly finance and human resources, to manage staffing and budgeting. They are also going to have to work with the operational managers to ensure that employee morale and engagement remains high.
Before a role is assigned to a team member, the managers are responsible for explaining the functions of that role and what it entails. More importantly, to maintain morale within the team, the managers regularly check on the employees and make sure that each employee is given only a maximum amount of work and doesn’t feel overburdened.
For instance, if the brand manager of the company is a part-time employee and the organization aims to launch a new advertising campaign for a product, the brand manager might not be a suitable fit for such a large campaign. Instead, the company may opt for hiring another brand manager or may consider outsourcing to an advertising agency to handle promotions.
Similarly, in case the sales of a company have rapidly grown, the management may decide that one office is not a suitable fit for handling the large influx of customers. Instead, they may decide to split that one office in two and set up two regional teams to better divide the excessive load. This is going to ensure that employees don’t feel overburdened without compromising on quality and service.
A critical function of management is to show leadership. Managers are supposed to lead and motivate their employees in achieving their targets. Leadership means to manage people and make sure that they have ample direction and focus. In case an employee is slacking off, a leader will figure out why and then help the employee get out of the rut they are in.
It’s not just about giving orders. Managers can create a positive work environment by figuring out the different moments that drive employees forward. The encouragement that they need could come from a small bonus or it could be a simple acknowledgement of the exceptional work that they have done in the past.
Good leaders are able to do the following:
Finally, managers have to maintain control. This means evaluating how the plan has been executed as was originally planned and to look for any deviations. During this stage, the managers are supposed to check on the controls set by the organization and to ensure that employees are meeting deadlines and appropriate training has been given to the employees as well.
More importantly, an important element of control lies in performance appraisals as well. This is a form of giving feedback to employees to help them figure out how they are doing. Good employees can get bonuses, whereas those who are not performing to the best of their capabilities are simply going to receive advice on how to perform better.
Similarly, as the project progresses, the management will be responsible for making adjustments to the budget and to the staff as well. Both of these are likely going to fluctuate with time, and it is up to the management to ensure that they get rid of any redundancies, or hire in case of a shortage.
Managers are responsible for making sure that they keep a record of the performance of the group of individuals they are tasked with. Appropriate feedback is necessary and plays an important role in the growth of the organization. It is one of the crucial management functions and feeds into the direction of the company and will eventually help it grow and become better.